While the large Bay of Fundy tides erode the magnificent coastal cliffs and wash the shoreline lots of appealing rocks, fossils, zeolites, and also semi-precious stones are exposed. Having a amazing geology going back billions of years the Bay of Fundy is heaven for geologists.
The Evangeline Trail, located along Nova Scotia’s Fundy shoreline in between Yarmouth and Windsor, is termed after Longfellow’s poem Evangeline: A Tale of Acadie that was influenced by the Acadian history present in this area of Nova Scotia.
1. Cape Forchu – “Cape Forchu, located close to Yarmouth and well-liked by visitors because of its apple core formed lighthouse, exhibits proof of Nova Scotia’s once active volcanoes. Cape Forchu is composed of Silurian volcanic rocks.
2. Cape St. Mary – The cliffs at Cape St. Mary, part of Nova Scotia’s French Acadian coast, are comprised of metamorphosed sedimentary rocks from the Cambrian-Ordovician age. Similar rocks can also be found along sections of the Lighthouse Route (the Blue Rocks) and the Marine Drive (Taylor Head).
3. Digby – A fold in Cambrian-Ordovician rocks is visible just off of Hwy 101 close to Digby.
4. Digby Neck and the Islands – Both Brier and Long Island are created of Jurassic basalt lava. When the lava cooled down, it frequently created vertical polygonal columns like Balancing Rock in Tiverton.
5. North Mountain Shore – Extraordinary cliffs and headlands, created by Jurassic basalt lava flows, are very common in this region of Nova Scotia. The vesicular tops of the flows made the ideal environment for the conception of mineral crystals like zeolites, amethyst and agates. Areas well-known because of their mineral crystals are Harbourville, Halls Harbor and Scots Bay.
6. Blomidon – Over 200 million years ago, when Nova Scotia was in the subtropics, red Triassic sedimentary rocks formed in lakes and streams in what is now the Province’s Annapolis Valley. These rocks form the cliffs found in this area, including those in Blomidon.
7. Blue Beach – Sandstones and mudstones deposited along the beaches of Carboniferous period lakes created Nova Scotia’s Blue Beach. Geological sights at Blue Beach include 350 million year old ripple marks, raindrop prints, fossil plants, fish scales and amphibian footprints.
8. St. Croix – Individuals touring down Hwy 101 from Halifax can see the white gypsum cliffs at St. Croix. Similar to the salt excavated at Pugwash and the limestones along the banks of the Kennetcook Brook, St. Croix gypsum forms a sedimentary deposit of the tropical “Windsor Sea” which covered this region in the Carboniferous era. Sea life, like horn corals present in limestone, prospered in this “sea”.